Human nutrition is the distribution of nutrients in food that are essential for good health and healthy life. However, poor nutrition is an acute problem commonly associated with scarcity, poverty, or an incomplete knowledge of proper nutritional needs. Often people turn to dieting as a short-term solution for fast results. This can lead to many diseases, premature deaths, and weight gains.
The food we eat contains carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, and proteins. Carbohydrates provide fuel to our bodies. Lipids are the components in fats that transport nutrients to the cells and maintain the structure of the body. Proteins are the building blocks for human muscle. The fat and water that surround our muscles carry nutrients to our muscle tissues. The body cells use all the nutrients in this mixture to produce energy.
The main functions of the macronutrients in a typical diet are to: supply the body with energy, regulate nutrient absorption and utilization, control carbohydrate metabolism, improve immunity and promote tissue repair. Simple sugars are the most immediate source of energy. Simple sugars are absorbed quickly by the body, providing a source of immediate energy. Complex carbohydrates provide longer-term energy and are broken down into two molecules of carbon, one of which is attached to the glucose molecules in the blood stream. Carbon-dioxide is released by the breakdown of the carbon-dioxide to provide a source of long-term energy.
According to Novomins Nutrition, there are four kilocalories in each gram of protein in the foods we eat. The macronutrient content for each gram protein depends on its component. Proteins can be divided into three types: fats, carbohydrates, or lipids. The carbohydrates are broken down into three sub-types, namely simple sugars, complex carbohydrates and lipids. The difference between carbohydrates is that simple sugars are digested quickly, facilitating quick energy per gram of carbohydrate; whereas, carbohydrates are not digested immediately but are metabolized slowly, resulting in long-term storage of energy.
Simple sugars and complex carbs are the main macronutrients found within foods. The difference between these two types lies in their metabolic processes. Simple sugars are easily absorbed and metabolized, whereas complex carbohydrates need time to be broken down before they reach the liver, which stores them as fat for later use.
Six major macronutrients are fats, carbohydrates protein, lipids, vitamins, and sugars. The best way to attain all the macronutrients is to eat a balanced diet, which contains all the major macronutrients. However, the different kinds of macronutrients must be fed separately according to the individual’s metabolic needs. One should take a mix of all the nutrients, for better health. This way, one ensures an optimal level of nutrition.